05 - A Comparative Study of Some Essential Oils Used in Papyrus Sterilization with a Case Study from the Early Islamic Period


Bahaa Fawwaz, Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities


The study was conducted on a papyrus (no. 25132) at the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo, Egypt. The papyrus was written on with black ink, 12 fungal species were isolated and identified; five types of fungi have been identified to complete the study after the aging procedure incubated the isolated fungi identified for three months.

This study investigates the in-vitro growth inhibitory of Aspergillus Niger, Aspergillus Flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum rifai, and paecilomyces variotii on papyrus. We observed the hyphal growth by the environmental scan electron microscope (ESEM). Natural oils such as lavender oil, lemon grass oil and Rosemary oil were used.

The effect of these natural oils on the new papyrus was evaluated after the aging process by scanning electron microscopy and analysis by measuring the color change of the papyrus samples to determine the best types of oils that inhibit the growth of fungus.